1. At the brink of another War
After the war of Kargil, tension never seemed to leave the region along the ceasefire line. It was during October, 2001 when 38 people were killed in the Kashmir assembly, followed by an attack in the Indian Parliament House, which killed 14 people. India blamed Pakistani backed militants for this distraught.
2. War of Kargil
During 1999, the Pakistani backed forces infiltrated the Indian Territory. In retaliation India launched their first airstrikes against Pakistan. Many people of both sides of the border fled their homes and finally, it was later during that year when General Pervez Musharraf also led a military coup in Pakistan.
3. Nuclear rivalry
So after successfully conducting nuclear tests, by 1998 both countries possessed the power for massive destruction in case of a war. This alerted the international community. America, as well as, European nations ordered sanctions against the two nations. Ultimately, they both had to sign an accord to assure them early resolving of the Kashmir issue.
4. Nuclear threat
It was first in the year 1974 when India conducted its first peaceful nuclear explosion. Then in 1998, India tested its first nuclear weapons and simultaneously in a few days later, Pakistan too conducted six successful tests. This generated a great amount of international concern over the nuclear status of the two enemy countries.
5. Kashmir Revolution
It was during 1989 when armed resistance broke out in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Separate groups were formed. While some asked for independence, others demanded to merge Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan.
6. War of 1971
During this time, there existed an East Pakistan. Pakistan descended into civil war and Indian came to the help and rescue of millions of civilians, who had fled the territory. This finally lead to the creation of a new and independent Bangladesh.
7. War of 1965
The first war ended in 1949 with the establishment of a ceasefire, but in 1965 when another war broke out when Pakistan launched a deliberate covert offensive across the border, in the Rann of Kutch area on the south western border.
8. War of 1947-48
Right after independence, the first war between India and Pakistan was fought, when Pakistan supported Muslim insurgency into the state of Jammu and Kashmir and in return, Indian offered the Maharaja armed assistance in return accession.
9. Disputed province of Jammu and Kashmir
The population mix of the state of Jammu and Kashmir has always been a mix of many ethnicities, like Hindus, Muslims, Ladakhy Bhuddhists and others. And, even today a large chunk is that of Muslims. This was the reason why Pakistan wanted to absorb the state in their part of the territory during partition, but India got it because it was being ruled by a Hindu Maharaja and so the reigns were handed to India. The conflict of who actually deserves to keep Kashmir has never been settled upon.
10. Partition and Division
At the time of independence, the two countries were formed on the basis that India would be dominated by Hindus and Pakistan by Muslims. But, in the wake of shifting from nation to another, many Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs were displaced. Millions were killed because they found themselves at the wrong side, and million others were left alone without family and friends. This partition and division of borders is the biggest reasons behind the Indo-Pak conflict.