In the quest to learn more about the universe, we have come up with numerous cosmological breakthroughs in the past decade. The last 10 years has seen it all from the time of Hubble and Einstein to Robotic Rovers. Some of them dispelled our existing misconceptions while others have paved the way for the new discoveries to be made in the future. Here are top 10 cosmological breakthroughs of the last decade.
10. Hubble Space Telescope and MACSSO647-JD:
It is one of the most outstanding cosmological breakthroughs made in the last decade. When NASA launched Hubble Telescope (the first space based optical telescope) little did they know what they are going to achieve in the near future. The telescope this year sighted the MACSSO647-JD, a galaxy that is almost 13 billion light years away from earth. This galaxy was identified through a gravitational lens.
9. Rogue Planet:
A giant sized planet was discovered that is believed to be situated at a distance of 100 light years away from the earth. This Rogue Planet is located in the constellation Doradus and scientifically logged as CFBDSIR2149. The Rogue Planet is known to produce a faint infrared glow and its size is estimated to be almost 5 times that of Jupiter.
8. Phoenix Cluster:
In the year 2012, scientists from Chandra X-Ray Observatory came out with a surprising new discovery. The galaxies situated in the Phoenix cluster, located at a distance of about 6 light years from earth they were found to be producing about 700 new stars yearly. It’s unusual for the reason that even Milky Way, a very active galaxy, produces two to three stars in a year.
7. Higgs Boson:
The scientists in 2012 finally laid claim to having discovered the Higgs Boson using the Hadron Collider at CERN. The discovery is considered to be path breaking for the reason that one can now comprehensively understand how the universe operates. With the discovery of Higgs, the last particle in an atom as described by standard model of physics has made its appearance before the scientific world through a multi-billion dollar experiment.
6. Earth Sized Planet:
Scientists have reported discovering various kinds of exo-planets or planets outside our solar system. Till date, the total number of such discoveries claimed are over 800, with many being made by using advanced telescopes such as the Hubble telescope. Planet gazers were surprised to find one exo-planet that was almost the size of earth in 2012. The planet was named Alpha Centauri Bb and is distanced about 4.3 light years away from earth.
5. Edge of Solar System:
With the launch of NASA’s IBEX in the year 2008, a great breakthrough was recorded in the cosmological science. In 2012, IBEX came up with evidence that there is a absence of ‘bow shock’ as the bubble around the solar system pushes through the void ahead. Scientists always believed that solar system always produces bow shock in its every part. This absence may prove that there is certainly an edge existing to our solar system.
4. Black Hole Power:
M87, a galaxy in our universe was discovered to be possessing black hole. The black hole is almost equivalent to around 6 billion suns and produces around 5000 light year long stream of ionic material. The discovery is all the more important because it will pave the way to know more about the occurrences under extreme relativistic conditions.
3. Studying Asteroid Vesta:
USA space agency NASA launched spacecraft named Dawn in 2011 to study some of the vast number of asteroids. Images of one asteroid Vesta taken between 2011 and 2012, broken down on the coloured spectrum scale to identify compounds, showed the presence of hydrated compounds on the surface of asteroid. The spacecraft is scheduled to encounter the asteroid Ceres in 2015.
2. White Window Model:
A path breaking paper by scientist J Craig Wheeler in 2012 sets out to prove why stellar remnants of Type 1A supernova are not observed generally. Wheeler postulates by way of the ‘white window model’ how white dwarf consumes an M dwarf star. The paper is believed to be an important torchbearer is dismissing some of the myths about existence of supernovas.
1. Mars Curiosity Rover:
The Mars Rover that landed on Mars in August 2012 has beamed back some of the most stunning images of the red planet. Some of the images studied by scientists have concluded that water once did flow on the dry planet. Experiments conducted by the rover on the plant have shown the presence of different kinds of gases which include methane, on the planets surface.