Expression of agreement under international laws is considered as international treaty, which is governed by the same rules. Treaties are like contracts wherein both parties agree to take up obligations amid themselves. Any party failing to live up to the obligations is liable to be tried under international laws. There have been numerous international treaties comprising of peace agreements, contracts between states, tribal groups and governments etc. one thing all of them have in common today is that all of them have become historic in some way or the other. We have listed below the ten most historic international treaties by our account.
10. Peace of Callias:
The Peace of Callias is the first most important international treaty that mankind witnessed. Established in the year 450 BC, the treaty is believed to have been signed between Athens led Deligan League and Persia to end the Greco-Persian wars. Persia that lost almost all significant territory to Greeks after Xerxes 1, was forced to settle for an accord initiated and negotiated by Callias (Politician from Athens). Peace of Callias was first and effective compromising treaty amongst Greek City and Achaemenid Persia.
9. Magna Carta:
Also referred to as The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, the Magna Carta was a document brought about by group of subjects forcing the king of England to limit his powers by law. Established in 1215, Magna Carta was the very first significant charter of English Liberty that curbed royal powers. The agreement formulated the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world. Magna Carta forced the king to proclaim many liberties and compelled him to accept that his will wasn’t arbitrary and binding on all. The charter outlawed imprisonment or punishment without jury trial, a rule which still exists.
8. Peace of Etaples:
Signed in Etaples between King Charles VIII Valois of France and Henry VII Tudor of England on the 3rd day of November 1942, the Peace of Etaples marked the end of war between England and France. The treaty of Etaples or Peace of Etaples served as the end of English invasion into France. The invasion was launched on Frances to stop its support for pretender Perkin Warbeck. Following the treaty, in addition to agreeing against Warbeck, France also paid England a £159,000 as indemnity.
7. Peace of Cateau Cambrésis:
Signed between Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France on 3rd day of April 1559, the Peace of Cateau Cambresis marked the end of Italian wars. The agreement served as the end to a 65 year struggle between Spain and France for Italy. The agreement left Habsburg Spain as the most dominant power in the region for the next 150 odd years.
6. Treaty of Union:
The idea of uniting sovereign states of kingdom of England and kingdom of Scotland had been making rounds and on July 22 of 1706, parliaments of England and Scotland agreed on a treaty. The Treaty of Union, which led to the unification of kingdom of England including Wales and kingdom of Scotland, took effect on 1st May 1707 and thus United Kingdom of Great Britain was formed.
5. Treaty of Versailles:
The Treaty of Versailles signed on 28 June 1919 was one of the most significant peace treaties, which formally ended the World War I. The treaty marked an end to the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Amid all the provisions in the treaty, Article 231 was the most important and became known as War Guilt Clause. The provision required Germany to accept responsibility for causing all the damage during the war.
4. United Nations Charter:
United Nations Charter also popular as the Charter of the United Nations, is the foundational treaty that formed the intergovernmental organization known as the United Nations. The treaty which was signed by 50 out of 51 original member countries on 26 June 1945 at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco gave birth to the United Nations which promotes world peace as it most important task.
3. Bermuda Agreement:
An agreement between the United Kingdom and United States on Civil aviation – air services between the two countries was initiated in Bermuda on 11 February 1946 and came to be known as the Bermuda Agreement. Another agreement known as the Bermuda II in 1977 ensured civil aviation between United Kingdom, Northern Ireland and United States.
2. Paris Peace Treaties:
Result of the Paris Peace Conference, the Paris Peace Treaties signed on 10th February 1947 marked the formal end to the World War II. Under the treaty the victorious Allied powers negotiated with the lesser countries. The victorious countries were called to pay war reparations to majority of countries involved in the war.
1. Fourth Geneva Convention:
The Fourth Geneva Convention also known as the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War is one of the four treaties signed in the Geneva Convention. Established in 1949, the Fourth Geneva Convention defines protection for civilians in war zones and outrightly outlaws practice of war.