Telescopes and Observatories have done a tremendous job to explore the unknown aspects of space. Have a look on this page of Topyaps and know more about these revolutionary inventions.10. Keck I & II Telescopes, Mauna Kea Observatory Hawaii, USA:
The two Keck telescopes were opened in 1992-96. They are situated 4,000m up a Hawaiian mountain, so above 40 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere. They are the world’s most powerful ground-based instruments, with a 10.82m total aperture made up of 36 hexagonal mirrors. Equipped with sophisticated cameras and spectrometers, each telescope is about 300 tons in weight.
9. Hubble Space Telescope, USA:
The HST was launched in 1990 and orbits 600km above earth’s atmosphere. It can photograph distant objects with ten times the detail possible with ground-based telescopes. Invented by NASA, this extraordinary space telescope has helped to rectify some of the major astronomical hurdles. This telescope has enabled scientists to find out the age of universe as well as the rate at which universe is expanding.
8. Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico:
This is the largest single-aperture telescope till the date which is operated by Cornell University. Its uses include searching for pulsars and quasars and the search for the alien life forms under the SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) programme. Its giant 305m dish features in the final scenes of the James Bond film – “Golden Eye.”
7. Jodrell Bank, Cheshire:
Originally known as Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, this observatory was founded by Sir Bernard Lovell in 1945 and currently governed by University of Manchester. Initially, Jodrell Bank was used for academic activities but after World War II it was involved in major researches such as, investigating the cosmic rays, concluding the space age and exploring the gravitational lenses.
6. Hale Telescope, Palomar Observatory, California, USA:
This groundbreaking telescope was named after astronomer George Ellery Hale and has played a vital role in discovering the mystical phenomenons of the Universe. Consisting ultramodern spectrograph, adaptive optics systems and infrared array imagers, this telescope is administrated by California Institute of Technology.
This astronomical observatory is located at the height of 1,742m in San Gabriel Mountains. In 1904, the Carnegie Institution of Washington provided this observatory a crucial funding. Focusing on deep space observation, this eminent observatory of 20th century has three solar telescopes, well known for exploring sun’s nature.
4. Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wisconsin, USA:
Governed by University of Chicago, this observatory was launched in 1897 and till the date it has the largest refracting telescope in the world used for astronomical research. Dedicated to explore near earth objects, infrared astronomy, interstellar medium and globular cluster formation, this observatory is considered as the birth place of modern astrophysics.
3. Birr Castle, Co. Offaly, Ireland:
The Earl of Rosse’s 1.8 reflecting telescope, built in 1845, was used to discover the spiral form of galaxies. It was the world’s largest until the opening of Mount Wilson and it was recently restored and opened to the public.
2. Herschel’s “Forty-foot” reflector, Slough:
This ancient telescope was invented by Sir William Herschel and Caroline Herschel between 1785 to 1789 in Britain. Settled on the grounds of observatory house, this telescope is renowned for discovering the 6th and 7th moons of Saturn. Mirror’s diameter was 48 inch and focal length was 40 foot, hence it name forty foot. It was disintegrated in 1839 and now resides in the Science Museum of London.
1. Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London:
This observatory was founded by King Charles II in 1675 but atmospheric and light pollution reduced its efficiency. In 1984, the Prime or Greenwich Meridian, zero degree, which passes through the Observatory, was adopted as the basis for all mapping and measurements. It constituted a 28 inch refracting telescope which was launched in 1893. However, it was ceased in late 1960s but still it is a key ingredient of educational programmes.