After around six decades of independence, India stands at number four in the list of world’s largest economies. We have population of around 1.2 billion and soon, we are going to be the nation with the most number of young and technically sound work forces. Our country has grown to a global agricultural powerhouse, after being dependent on the other countries for grain import for so many years. Life expectancy and literacy rates in our country have doubled and quadrupled in the last few years. Let’s have a look at the developments in India over the last 10 years. We will be having a look at all the major areas a country should excel in.
10. Rural Development:
Increased urbanization and changes in global production system have changed the complete scenario of rural areas. Developments in rural areas are majorly concerned with the proper utilization of land resources and imparting proper healthcare and education to the people of rural areas. Major changes and developments in rural areas in the last few years are:
- Rural education programmes have gained prominence in the past few years. Around 97% children of the ages 6-14 are enrolled in government and private schools.
- Focus on increasing tourism in rural areas has been made by the tourism ministry. Tourism has also started pushing agriculture down on the list of main economic drivers of the country.
- Development of small scale industries have made people independent and confident.
- Various schemes have been launched to upgrade the living standards of people in rural areas. Some of them are: MGNREGA, DIKSHA, BHARAT NIRMAN, etc.
In the last 10 years, power sector in India has seen increased participation of private sector, both foreign and domestic. ‘New’ Electricity act, 2003 is a landmark document, first of its kind that revamps the regulatory framework governing the power sector. The Eleventh Plan (2007-12) aimed at addition of 78000 MW of power and the Twelfth 5-year plan (2012-17) is even more ambitious, which aims at addition of over 100,000 MW of power. There are various problems with the power generation and transmission in our country, which are as follows:
- Transmission capacity lags behind generating capacity.
- Land acquisition is a major problem.
8. Military research and development:
Military research and development has not progressed as it was predicted by the observers and hoped by the leaders. The Prithvi battlefield is similar to that of the US Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS), but it is less flexible. To be able to combat during emergency situations, it should integrate many more advanced features such as integrated surveillance. The Agni missile is also a completely indigenous design. The Arjun tank was much hyped one, but many army personnel say that it doesn’t shoot straight! India has set a budget of $ 100 billion for defence purchases for this decade. With this whooping amount, India has its sight set on modernizing military and jump-start its own defence industry. Let’s have a look at various deals:
- $ 10 billion contract for 126 multi-role combat aircraft,
- $ 7.6 billion contract for 12 stealth frigates,
- $ 3.5 billion tender for 7 submarines,
- $ 3 billion deal for 197 light helicopters.
7. Media and Entertainment:
Media and entertainment industry has became one of the leading industries in India after registering an explosive growth in the last decade. There are more than 400 channels in the country till date. This improvement came about after foreign and private sector investment in this industry. As per the survey report by KMPG and FICCI, entertainment industry is expanding at a rate of 12.5% every year and is expected to reach US $ 20.09 billion in the year 2013. Industry generated INR 5808 billion in 2009 which was much more than INR 3565 billion in 2005. The Indian Medical and Entertainment industry saw a growth of 11% in the year 2009-2010. It increased from US $ 12.9 billion in 2009, to US $ 14.4 billion in 2010. This showcases the explosive growth of media and entertainment in India. New forms of media such as animation, visual effects, films and music post phenomenal progress in the recent years, while conventional media (TV, print and radio) still remain dominant in the field of entertainment. The internet video consumption market in India is expanding at a humongous pace. 80% more videos were viewed in 2012 than in the past years. Total expense on the advertising was just 1% in 2005 and it increased to 7% in 2012.
Rich history, geographical and cultural diversity attracts large number of international tourists in India. Tourism generates much revenue and opens employment opportunities in the country. GDP of tourism sector has increased by 229% in the years 1990-2011. Tourism generated USD 121 billion revenue, 39.3 million jobs in the last few years. And the count has been increasing ever since. The booming medical tourism sector is expected to reach about rupees 9500 crore, with an estimated annual growth of 30%. Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Agra are the four most visited cities of India by tourists of all nations. But tourism ministry is still not able to cope up with this whooping number. Tourism infrastructure in India remains underdeveloped. India still needs 150000 more hotel rooms to accommodate the increasing number of tourists. In the past few years, concerted efforts are being made to popularize new forms of tourism such as cruise, rural, eco-tourism and medical. Meanwhile, “Incredible India” campaign is being maintained well by the tourism ministry.
5. Economic Growth:
With fundamental reforms and their renewal in 1991 and 2000s respectively, India has managed to emerge as a free market economy. India is the 4th
largest economy in the world. According to the Ease of Doing Business Index, India was ranked 132nd
in year 2012 and ranks 123rd
in Index of Economic Freedom world ranking.
- Agriculture: India is the 2nd largest food producer in the world. Agriculture and allied sectors like fishing, forestry, etcetera, gave employment to 60% of the total workforce with 18.6% of GDP in 2005.
- Oil and Natural gas reserves: India has massive reserves of oil and natural gas. As of January 2010, India has about 5.62 billion barrels of oil and 1.437 billion cubic metres of natural gas reserves.
- Employment: Employment growth in India is only 2.3% per year, but labour force is growing by 2.5% a year. Unemployment in India is more than 9% and only 10% of workforce is engaged in regular employment.
- The government of India has taken an initiative to eradicate child labour and massive allocations have been made for the same. It was US 10 million in 1995-96, U.S $16 million in 1996-87, and U.S $ 21 million for the year 2007.
Aspirations of Indians are soaring high. This requires massive investments to create new jobs, housing and to make cities and towns more liveable. With the development of India’s human potential, infrastructure development plays a major role to determine the shape of country. Infrastructure of any country boosts its pride and India has been witnessing continuous changes in this sector, be it roadways, railways, airport, etc. let’s have a look at a few of the major developments infra sector of India in the past few years:
- Mumbai’s eastern freeway, a magnificent second largest flyover of India, opened to public in June 2013.
- Indore’s BRTS, reflects a planned commuting system in India, which helps in the reduction of emission and reduces pollution by improving air quality (July 2009).
- Double-decker trains (April 2013), Solar park in Gujarat (April 2012), GIFT city in Gujarat, Metro rail project in various cities, Modernisation of underway at airports, etc.are a few worth noticing infrastructure developments in India.
It was after India’s adoption of mixed system of economy that urbanization in India gained prominence. Only 11.4% of population resided in urban areas according to 1901 census. The count kept on increasing and it was 28.53% in 2001 and crossed 30% in 2011, constant at 31.16%. It has been analysed in a survey that by 2030, this count will go up to 40.76%. Delhi’s population increased by 4.1%, Mumbai’s by 3.1% and Kolkata’s by 2.1% in 2011 as compared to 2001 census. Right now, India has around 300 million people living in metro cities. Our country is witnessing the massive wave of urbanization, as around 10 million people migrate to towns and cities every year in search of jobs. This is also being termed as the largest rural-to-urban migration of India.
There has been a drastic change in the field of education in India. Education system has witnessed a great extent of development in the past few years. This is due to increased investment and various mushroomed institutes all over the country. The literacy rate in India was recorded as 74% in 2011 census. India is now ranked at number 3 after china and U.S.A in the field of higher education. Education system in India has seen many critical changes. Some of these changes are very advantageous. Let’s have a look at the few of them:
- Online education in India is an advantageous system that aims at delivering education to the students via internet. This can simultaneously be done with one’s present job. Thus, online education is one kind of a revolution in the field of education system
- Distant education is also one of its own kind beneficial forms of learning that aims at helping students who cannot attend regular classes.
Private education market has increased to U.S $ 68-70 billion in 2012 as compared to $ 40 billion in 2008. According to the records of Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), 96.5% of children between the ages 6-14 were enrolled in school in 2012. This was a great achievement but still, we need to focus more on the quality of education now. Women’s literacy rate in India never went above 30% until 2001, when women’s literacy rate touched 50% of overall women population and it has been increasing ever since. Government of India launched Saakshar Bharat mission to hamper female literacy rate.
Healthcare systems are established all over the country to provide better diagnosis, treatment of diseases, illness, etc. Health care plays a significant role in any country’s economy. Therefore, in India too, health care is given a prominent attention. The 12th
five-year plan also underlined various strategies related to health. They are:
- Substantial expansion and strengthening of public sector health care systems.
- It stresses on cooperation between public and private health care providers.
- Expansion of medical colleges and hospitals, etc.
Past few years have witnessed many changes in the Indian health related issues. Let’s have a look on a few:
- It was in 2012, when India, for the first time in history, emerged as a polio free nation.
- Various NGOs like Indian Heart Foundation, etc. have been created to spread health related awareness.
National Rural Health mission was launched in April 2005 by the Government of India to provide better and advanced health care to the people in rural and remote areas.